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Government App Sharing
Our drive and passion is to help government save money and become more efficient through sharing software and collaboration
CFGIO is a nonprofit entity that is responsible for building the system of the same name. There are thousands of struggling city and county governments that could receive budget relief immediately through CFGIO. CFGIO's intention is to provide financial relief to cash starved government organizations as soon is possible through several programs including its marketplace system which produces low cost, integrated software applications for managing their organizations.
Marketplace and SaaS Programs
The Marketplace Bidding System is one of several of the Centers programs. Its mission is to build a government cloud the right way, reducing IT budget costs and promoting business application interoperability to make government run better.
The Marketplace drives inefficiencies out of government by centralizing business software so that all government can share it. The centralization process uses market forces to promote government interoperability and reduce expenses. Its creation fills a missing piece in government by providing governance for the design and creation of centralized interoperable software systems.
The value of the Center for Government Interoperability is in the new framework it introduces that incentivizes private industry to integrate government data instead of building silo systems. It has the potential to quickly integrate all of government at every level across state and federal boundaries.
CFGIO centralizes software applications by bringing together vendors and government agencies into an eBay type marketplace where vendors compete to offer the best deal on the best integrated, open source software applications for a particular application, for example, asset management.
Government bidders collectively purchase the application so that the cost of the centralized software is shared by many government organizations and expenses are greatly reduced.
CFGIO coordinates the design and implementation of all of the shared applications to ensure optimized statewide and nationwide interoperability. CFGIO not only reduces costs through group purchases, it also does the software integration work for all government agencies that would otherwise independently consume resources integrating their systems.
In addition, CFGIO creates a new business model that gives private industry incentives to design government interoperability more extensively than before
The combination of these three advantages constitutes major benefits in terms of savings and better government services.
What makes the concept technically feasible are characteristics unique to software programs. Software can be written once and shared with an infinite number of federal and state clients at little additional expense beyond original development cost.
The Center for Government Interoperability's intention is to provide financial relief to cash starved government organizations by providing them with shared, low cost, integrated software applications for managing their organizations
CFGIO-initiated cost savings are viable because there are thousands software applications which only require one centralized version in order to be shared by many government agencies. For example, one inventory system could serve all U.S. cities. If many of the cities share the expense of the one single shared version, costs are dramatically reduced. Savings increase geometrically because one software application can serve hundreds of government entities. The more government organizations purchase the shared software, the less they each have to pay.
All of the shared computer business systems would be consolidated in one place (logically, not necessarily physically) and designed to be interoperable. This is a much higher level of integration than if the systems were shared but hosted by separate departments. Those departments not wishing to use centralized servers could elect to install the shared software on their own servers and still benefit from the integration designed into the programming code.
The concept that makes it easy for government to use is an eBay type interface managed by a centralized service agency, the Center for Government Interoperability, with additional features such as being able to test software offerings in an integrated environment and collectively discuss it within forums that are coupled with product offerings.
Because applications are consolidated into centralized databases, a substantial
amount of effort is avoided that would otherwise be spent organizing government
interoperability through traditional means such as enterprise architecture
and service oriented architecture.
Collaborative testing and purchasing of government software systems becomes as easy as clicking a mouse
In effect, the eBay-like testing and discussion environment make collaborative testing and purchasing of software applications as simple as buying an item off eBay. When enough clients agree to purchase a software application, funding is approved. Funding is transparent and market driven. Integrating government services is vastly speeded up. Much faster than the single project at a time method currently used that requires many months of meetings, planning and new communications arrangements established for each project.
Economic concepts in this system reverse the paradigm of having one vendor selling multiple licensed copies to individual government agencies, and instead government has vendors compete to bid on a single open source system but with infinite possibilities to add new features to it.
CFGIO's software offerings to government are open source. Both open source organizations and private industry vendors offer systems through the Center. Private industry vendors are paid to create products that are converted into open source applications. Open source is a very pragmatic way of evolving software in a rapidly changing environment. It harnesses the collective wisdom, experiences, expertise and requirements of its most demanding users to ensure that their needs are rapidly met. Open source gives government clients the opportunity to innovate and add value to their organizations without the problems faced with the traditional software products. The Center will host the open source software. This means that the Center will run the open source applications for government clients, who will not have to download and install the software themselves. This will lower costs for government and provide them with easy, web-based access.
Open source advantages
Non-technical Description of the CFGIO Model for Audience Not Familiar with IT Concepts
Business software can be thought of as a set of instructions that any computer programmer can create. A simplified analogy of government purchasing redundant business software would be if the city of Beverly Hills purchases instructions from lawn experts on how to take care of its municipal lawns: (1) water the lawn (2) mow the lawn. Los Angeles also redundantly purchases the same instructions (1) water the lawn (2) mow the lawn. Continuing this pattern for all U.S. government lawns results in all cities, counties, states and federal lawn managers redundantly paying for the exact same instructions from various lawn experts.
This type duplication is what government actually does when purchasing business software.
Government doesn't have a plan to comprehensively share software because up to this point, each department only looks out for its own needs.
The Center for Government Interoperability solution allows for government to collectively purchase the instructions by paying for a non-licensed copy only one time and sharing copies of it amongst paying government agencies.
In addition, the Center for Government Interoperability creates a nationwide marketplace and forum where all lawn experts sell new types of instructions regarding lawn management beyond watering and mowing such as energy management and biological sciences so that government lawns benefit from increasingly improved management processes that they didn't have before.
The new instructions are only paid for once, so in order to generate additional income from government, lawn experts must continually provide new instructions, thus making them innovating partners in improving government.
Government now has more funds to pay for new instructions due to the collective purchase of the single shared instructions, which are much cheaper than if they bought them individually.
Private industry will have a better chance of selling a much larger variety of projects including large new projects because the cost is now acceptable to government through its group purchasing power.
Building interoperability is a key goal of the Center for Government Interoperability, so as part of the CFGIO government development marketplace, lawn experts would put out for bid, proposals to create plans to integrate Beverly Hills and Los Angeles irrigation systems to optimize resources. This further improves the innovation and planning partnership between lawn experts and government. They are now working together to design the "big picture" type of strategic plan for government instead of the current situation where multiple lawn experts sell government the same stovepiped instructions without regard to enterprise-wide design. Companies from related disciplines such as water conservation management can participate with lawn experts in the national forums to build more interoperability.
CFGIO makes both the government and private industry more productive by creating an environment where they have incentives to plan innovation together.
In real life, software is much more universal than lawn care instructions, so there is no limit to what private industry/government partnerships can achieve once their creativity is channeled through the CFGIO model. Public employees and private enterprise have a nationwide forum where they can collectively design government IT systems that interoperate to give citizens greater value in all areas such as education, defense and transportation.
What is missing in today's environment is that government is not set up to give private industry incentives to consolidate and integrate government. The incentive is actually the reverse. The CFGIO model rectifies this to give private industry incentives and opportunities to improve government interoperability and integration.
The Center for Government Interoperability acts as a broker to bring vendors and government agencies together within a centralized marketplace
The sharable software concept is feasible because a single version can handle multiple government clients at little additional expense beyond the original cost
Below is the overview menu used by government to search and bid for solutions offered by vendors. It is also viewable by the public in order to increase transparency.
Hypothetical Data - actual data is located on marketplace page
Matching Vendor Solutions
|Private sector vendors selling solutions or government entities sharing solutions||Government clients looking for software solutions|
Vendors or government programmers offering products
Government clients voting to purchase so far
Project Portfolio Management
Vendors or government programmers offering products
Government clients voting to purchase so far
5 Private sector vendors selling solutions or government entities sharing solutions
34 Government clients voting to purchase so far
Expert technicians to help guide clients or vendors and answer questions
Government clients only, discussion forum including overall comparison of all vendor solutions (private)
Vendor, client and CFGIO Architect forum (public)
All Center for Government Interoperability (CFGIO) software programs are designed to interoperate with most other systems in the CFGIO system. This means that portfolio management will be integrated to the full extent possible with inventory management, as well as any other CFGIO software. State and federal government can obtain summary totals of all their agencies' transactions.
VotesGovernment entities voting for this vendor's solution
CostNo licensing fees. CFGIO will charge monthly maintenance fees which include nightly backups.
SavingsSavings increase geometrically because one software application can serve hundreds of government entities. When more organizations purchase software, the original purchasing organization gets reimbursed and the cost is further reduced.
EDD Solutions, Inc.
12 government clients interested so far.
Click here to have your government agency vote for this vendor's inventory management solution
Vendor one-time fee: $2,530,221
Vendor yearly maintenance fee (five years of follow-up): $100,000
Cost per government entity if all entities agreed on a specific solution: $74,418.26
CFGIO monthly maintenance fee: $9 per gigabyte
Total one time savings for the current list of 34 interested
government clients if they all selected this vendor (approximation)
Total repeating yearly savings for the current list of 34 interested government clients if they all selected this vendor (approximation) $1,700,000
Sinclair Integrators, Inc.
14 government clients interested so far.
Click here to have your government agency vote for this vendor's inventory management solution
Vendor one-time fee: $1,800,000
Vendor yearly maintenance fee (five years of follow-up): $50,000
Cost per government entity if all entities agreed on a specific solution: $52,941.17
CFGIO monthly maintenance fee: $9 per gigabyte
Total one time savings for the current list of 34 interested
government clients if they all selected this vendor (approximation)
Total repeating yearly savings for the current list of 34 interested government clients if they all selected this vendor (approximation) $850,000
If used by multiple organizations, the Center for Government Interoperability takes government integration to a high financially efficient form.
The strength of Center for Government Interoperability model is that it is business driven.
The government marketplace allows government agencies to collectively
post their business system needs in a common forum. This results in private
industry better understanding government's priorities. The government
marketplace allows private industry to demo solutions that have not been
thought of yet by government. This results in government getting a very
large pool of solutions so that it can better design its vision for the
future. A dialogue between government and developers occurs in CFGIO forums
allowing refinement of government requirements and private industry's
improved understanding of government requirements. Vendor product offerings
that more accurately reflect government's needs can now populate the marketplace
product listings resulting in a cycle of continual government business
A government-wide, standardized menu for CFGIO acts as an non-IT person's map of business and IT systems so that government business executives can visualize government as a whole clearly enough to be full strategic planning partners with IT executives.
The standardized menu for all sharable applications is a perceptible governmental unifying point that centralizes collective self awareness and energizes the inter-operational vision. It is the focal point for tying business processes together. It works in the same way that Microsoft's desktop brings outside vendor products together into inter-operational compliance through a single unifying application and also allows diverse users to collectively use it.
It provides a uniform menu system that standardizes common government functions and terminology, and visually conceptualizes enterprise architecture so that business people become enterprise-wide designers with IT by giving business people a common experience, language and forum to connect with IT and each other statewide or federal wide.
CFGIO has several types of forums designed to focus collective wisdom on solving common problems.
Center for Government Interoperability forums transcend the bureaucracy
that traditionally blocks interagency cooperation.
All business processes are related. Examples are procurement, personnel administration, ITIL, inventory management, portfolio management, change management, in short, everything. They should be integrated throughout the enterprise, statewide or federal, but different government departments use different vendor products that don't interoperate. Locking all government organizations into one private vendor's system to obtain interoperability is not an option. Government is best suited to integrate itself by building interoperability or telling vendors how to build components through enterprise design. This integration concept is similar to how Microsoft mandates outside vendors to integrate into Microsoft's systems which allows applications to share functions and to make sure that that each new application doesn't interfere with existing ones. Integration for Microsoft means interoperability so as not to have to reinvent screen drawing or disk access functions. Microsoft doesn't leave interoperability up to the outside vendors; it closely manages all integration issues using its operating system as the unifying focus. Government must do the same and view its business processes as an integrated, citizen oriented operating system.
It is intended that many applications be added to CFGIO by government and private industry developers. Different views of the data will appropriately appear for different sectors of government, e.g., military, police, education, etc., while beneath the surface, the data is configured to interoperate government wide.
A simplified example would be a project portfolio management application that would appear as a menu item on the Center for Government Interoperability system. It would cost government less to build a single project portfolio management system that all state, city and county departments use, than to have all of the state's departments, cities and counties individually pay $200,000 for the system. A centralized system could "roll up" subtotals for all cities, counties and state departments into summary statewide totals that individual, silo project portfolio systems could not if each entity bought their own version. These summaries would be instantly available to the legislature, governor and state budget officials. Instead of having hundreds of IT shops individually configuring project portfolio software into local organizations, there would need to be far fewer configuring the single, centralized one. The local IT shop could concentrate on issues unique to their departments, counties or cities. City planners from all of the state's cities would use the same menu, business terms, and application functionality thereby allowing smarter design recommendations and mutual assistance through collective, statewide discussions in the Center for Government Interoperability forums. One centralized help desk could serve all city, county and state users.
The concept that makes it easy to create sharable software is that only one extra field per table record is needed to make it sharable. For example, if an inventory system has these fields: item description, location and serial number, then all that's needed to make the table sharable for every government organization in the whole state is to add an organization_ID field to it. This is a simplification, but it gives the general idea. It keeps all of the data logically separate so that each governmental entity only sees data that pertains to it, but since all of the data is physically in one table, legislators, analysts and budget officials can obtain unfettered business intelligence from the database.
A single testing area for the Center for Government Interoperability, a government integration laboratory, will allow government and private industry developers to set up trial versions of their software to see how it inter-operates with all currently existing systems. The laboratory will be a mirror of the production version and allow clients to collectively test, compare and comment upon software from many vendors. Example: a city environmental sustainability component can be simultaneously tested by city planners in every city in the state. The city planners test the software in conjunction with all of their already-existing systems in the test area so that bugs and improvements are quickly identified. They can comment on how it inter-operates with the rest of their city business applications and send feedback to each other and the vendor within a secure online forum to guarantee that requirements are met. For vendors, this means a level playing field where their products can be evaluated by all clients in a particular government sector. A government integration laboratory means that all products can be thoroughly tested for seamless enterprise integration before merging with the production environment, thereby strengthening enterprise architecture with each purchase of a government application. Otherwise without a Government Integration Laboratory, each new software build or purchase risks incomplete enterprise integration.
Example: Let's assume that all city police departments have a single, shared, vendor-neutral application for all business processes. A new, private company brings a product to the market that can improve management of worker sick leave and vacation times so that human resources are automatically configured to handle police functions around the city during personnel absences. The vendor introduces the product to the Center for Government Interoperability Laboratory by integrating it into the rest of the police management applications, where police managers from around the country test, comment and compare it with similar applications. Because of the large number of reviewers, the depth of the review is improved and the ability to collectively discuss it on a secure government forum makes application testing much more productive and generates many more suggestions than if a single city was reviewing the software. If the new application improves government's mission, then it can be added to the production version of the Center for Government Interoperability, which is composed of other modules that may have been written by different private or public developers. All cities' police departments benefit from the new software but only pay a fraction of the cost that they would have, had they bought it individually.
The Center for Government Interoperability Laboratory creates a unifying application for all government sharable business processes so that integration of new applications is built into government from the beginning and business stakeholders are brought into strategy planning from the beginning.
When private industry creates a business tool such as ITIL, many of the organization's components are identified and placed in a database. Once the data is there, it is easy to create additional applications such as asset or portfolio management. Because all of the government components are already in the application database, all they have to do is connect them together to make other applications available. The natural result is that the application has done government's interoperability work for it and is integrated deeper and deeper into business areas where the whole government organization can be serviced by one vendor. Many vendors compete to be The "One Big Integrator" of government. The problems with this are (1) the different vendor products are not cross-departmentally inter-operational (2) there is no continuity if a vendor goes out of business (3) government cannot allow itself to become locked into a single vendor product because it creates an uneven playing field for competing companies, creates the perception of government vulnerable to charges of being the vendor's hostage, and massive dependency on the vendor recreates the "too big to be allowed to fail" problem experienced during the 2008-2009 financial crises (4) government is redundantly paying for the same product each time an organization purchases it. The Center for Government Interoperability was designed to resolve these conflicts by moving private industry vendors out of areas that are duplicative, and transforming them into strategic planning partners that more quickly and reliably improve government integration and productivity. This is a subtle but important distinction that has not been fully understood yet by many in government.
CFGIO is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to create a for-profit marketplace for integrated, open source government software applications. For profit vendors will be able to sell their products on CFGIOs system. Private industry plays a large role in the Center for Government Interoperability because it adds a critical extra set of eyes for improving government. Under the CFGIO model, the integration aspect of private industry solutions is emphasized. CFGIO redirects vendors from selling redundant tools into an environment where they compete to add new improvements that are aligned with government's enterprise-wide strategic plans. Government will own the systems and the open source licenses for them built by private industry. Vendors can add components to the system but cannot own them or have intellectual property rights. This allows vendors with good ideas to improve an already existing component that they didn't create. CFGIO shifts the focus away from silo creation. Instead of a race to lock government into a proprietary system, private industry will earn profits by finding new ways for government to think enterprise-wide and integrate its components. The CFGIO framework removes previous inefficiencies arising from government and private industry relationships and puts them both to work in the same productive direction. With its focus on system integration, private industry participation is indispensable to CFGIO's success because only it has the large number of analysts necessary to transform government into the public service center of excellence envisioned by CFGIO. Vendor revenue is derived from building, modifying, consulting, installing, servicing and maintaining their products, and on-boarding, servicing and training clients. Because vendors are allowed to provide demo solutions that government has not asked for or thought of or requested yet, they will have an effective method for obtaining nationwide visibility for their products and their companies. CFGIO vendor-suggested integration projects greatly increase government's opportunities.
One of the most important strategies of the CFGIO is to have a strong department of data architects and data modelers. They are the ones primarily responsible for ensuring that all software components interoperate correctly. They keep the system from deteriorating as new components are added over time by reviewing enterprise opportunities during any change or addition to the system. They create long-term plans for how the system will grow, including interoperability with other government organizations. CFGIO data architects will oversee private industry and government software developers' projects. They will also standardize data sharing, data descriptions and taxonomies (data context) at a government-wide level.
They will model the data rigorously in order to keep enterprise integration perfectly aligned with business needs, and act as a rapid response team to changing business environments. They will work closely with vendors and government clients through the forums and a data governance council to maintain continual awareness of client requirements and translate business requirements into data models. Data architects will bring together the business process improvement side with the IT side to conduct performance reviews of, and consider reengineering, business processes. They will encourage business analysts to avoid assumptions and logic traps and instead to trace the chain of government business processes through layers of abstraction to determine if the organization's mission can be more optimally achieved.
As new systems are added, the data architects will maximize reuse of components and eliminate redundancy so that all systems work together in ways that increase operational agility and add new features for clients.
The Integration Laboratory helps data architects and stakeholders to look at actual integration ramifications of every new business project and every business system change within an enterprise-wide context.
Bidding systems currently exist such as GSA Advantage, DoD EMALL and FedBid that allow bidding or government auctions for products. A missing key component is interoperability with other products. Interoperability is often the main driver for government solutions in areas such as cross-agency coordination, business process reengineering, innovation and general efficiency. Many of government's largest problems are related to business software systems that are not integrated. Without continual interoperability updates, you cannot re-engineer your business processes; your IT systems hold your business process improvements hostage. The most important areas for interoperability planning are in national security and emergency preparedness. CFGIO was created as a result of the 911 Commission's report on lack of government interoperability. The Center can provide significant improvements in national security and emergency preparedness because it was designed from the ground up to build continually improved interoperability into government.
Because CFGIO brings many more outside analysts to help government focus
on interoperability opportunities, the Center can significantly increase
the amount of national security and preparedness analysis. The Center
strongly focuses on interoperability building during project design and
can provide leadership in that area through its software design methodologies
that strengthen national defense.
CFGIO will generally allow only one software version of a government
function, for example, county tax records processing. The single function
limitation is not a limitation in capability because CFGIO's crowd-sourcing
business model applies sustained innovation to the functions. Having only
one version is how vendors and government developers working on related
functions will know how to plan for integration with all other government
functions. Without a single system for each function area, developers
will never have a stable target with which to plan connectivity and integration.
E.g., which county tax system will the state financial system hook up
with? Who knows, there are so many of them. But with CFGIO, developers
can count on there being a single, known connection opportunity for every
area of government. This will enable nationwide planning.
Vendors are allowed to demo systems in the CFGIO testing Lab that have not yet been requested or even thought of by government. These systems will be out there ready for any government client to test drive, integrated with models of government's existing systems so that clients can see how they interoperate inside their current environment. One reason for allowing vendors to build demos before they are solicited is so that government improvement suggestions are not limited to what government analysts can envision but instead can come from a far larger pool of analysts that have new innovative ideas that are easily proven through hands-on testing at the CFGIO Lab.
With permission to pre-build integrated solutions, vendors will strive to fill in missing interoperability throughout government so that the whole web of government is rapidly improved. These innovative solutions can be bid on and bought through the CFGIO collective purchasing system.
Pre-solicited demo solutions enable immediate responses to government business problems because CFGIO encourages vendors to quickly identify broken systems and build applications that compliment other systems instead of building competing silos. Other frameworks do not have such nationwide breadth and swiftness in addressing government's needs. What is new is that incentives are designed for private industry to comprehensively fill interoperability needs of government, not just one-off projects. Before CFGIO, interoperability planning has not been possible because systems were locked in individual agencies, but CFGIO will have a test model of all government that allows integrated systems planning and testing.
These already-built solutions are intended to be compared with other solutions for the same problem, side-by-side, on the same CFGIO testing Lab environment as all the other systems resulting in fast government-wide interoperability improvements.
Having pre-built solutions that vendors think of before government asks for them puts vendors to work with government business clients and developers quickly mapping out the target, "to-be" government architecture of the whole nation. The method is rapid because it greatly increases the number of developer visionaries evaluating and working on government problems as a whole and gives them the framework to do the job.
What happens currently without this method? Vendors try to contact each government agency one at a time in a haphazard approach to sell their siloed solutions. Government agencies only solicit solutions that they think of, isolated from the larger integration picture. However putting government clients behind the wheel drive-testing already built solutions in a convenient and integrated environment will let them get past bureaucratic roadblocks and focus on fulfilling core government missions. Even if individual government mangers are bound and determined to keep their systems as isolated silos in order to protect their turf at the expense of enterprise-wide efficiency, vendor apps at CFGIO will appear that point out to budget-conscious legislatures and governors, superior business processes and lower expenses from integrated demo systems.
The Center defines a new, sustainable framework that incentivizes private industry to make government systems talk to each other
When there are business requirements changes, the larger developer community can respond with demo-ready solutions for diverse projects through efficient rapid response teams. Citizens will get better service from government because CFGIO handles change faster and makes government more agile.
Government business side clients often can't visualize quantum leaps in process improvement resulting from proposed data interoperability until they can see the systems demoed. CFGIO Labs will put working demos out there that vendor and government developers have built. This will greatly improve requirements management. Requirements management, the most important success factor in any project, is greatly enhanced by CFGIO demo systems as it allows an iterative process to bring business requirements into focus. Clients can visualize vendor plans much better when using vendor demos, and can contribute to refinement of vendor understanding of the business.
CFGIO provides a new framework for government business clients to work together with vendors to produce sustained innovation throughout all areas of government.
Government's requirements include integrated services for clients whose needs fall into cracks that lie between silo systems. Today's procurement systems cannot handle those integration needs. This creates a distorted market that can never satisfy demand.
CFGIO creates an efficient procurement market that addresses government's
needs comprehensively by creating a framework that allows private industry
to integrate government's systems.
The scope applies to common business applications because they all share data that can be easily connected but has not been because previously, there was no centralizing process.
Custom business applications that are unique to a government entity are not CFGIO's main focus, but could have connectivity to the Center for Government Interoperability if they have any table sharing potential at all. CFGIO's main focus is business software that has the potential to be shared by multiple agencies.
The Center for Government Interoperability does not apply to applications like networking software or hardware. These must be purchased because it's not efficient for government to build them. It is not intended that government write its own server operating systems.
The scope includes all United States government organizations: federal, state, city, county and tribal.
Why not keep it simple and limit CFGIO's scope to a state, so that there is a CFGIO for each state?
Creating only one version of CFGIO will best promote nationwide planning
and leverage economies of scale.
Benefits of the Center for Government Interoperability are extensive.
Click image to see enlarged version of overview.
The Center for Government Interoperability would contain various units such as a Service Desk, PMO, Finance, Contracts, Enterprise Architecture, Process Improvement and Quality Management but the following are the main components.
The Center for Government Interoperability is being created now. For updates contact us here: http://www.gov-ideas.com/contact.htm.
The benefits of creating this new agency are that it uses market forces to effectively focus collective software purchases towards building government interoperability and eliminating redundant software costs.
It greatly simplifies and speeds up creation of services by making software available to all government entities at the same time whenever any application is first written.
It increases the number of analysts, both in government and private industry, that work on process improvement by bringing them together in statewide and nationwide collaboration forums as part of an innovation engine.
By incentivizing innovation, and coordinating purchasing and integration of software, the Center for Government Interoperability provides a new framework for sustained government improvement.